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SUMMARY:  Halitosis is attributed to malodorous volatile sulphur compounds (VSC). This study assesses the relative effectiveness of six oral care products in reducing these malodorous VSCs.

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SUMMARY:  Bad breath is essentially caused by two sources, physiological and pathological. Physiological sources of bad breath come from conditions on the surface of the tongue. Pathological sources are influenced by the severity of pockets within the gums, also known as periodontal disease.

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SUMMARY:  Aseptrol deodorizing tablets release chlorine dioxide when dissolved in water. Chlorine dioxide has demonstrated its ability for odor and bacterial control, as well as for disinfection, sanitization, and oxidizing pollutants. Mold, mildew, food odors, tobacco smoke, and pet odors are among the odor producing compounds that are easily oxidized by Aseptrol deodorizing products.

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SUMMARY:  The majority of bad breath originates within the mouth. However, it is possible that bad breath can come from other sources. Recent evidence has demonstrated a link between bad breath and adult periodontitis. The process of developing bad breath is similar to the progression of gingivitis to periodontoal disease. This paper is a review of articles that present correlations in the relationship between bad breath and adult periodontitis, analyzes current malodor tests, and available treatments regimens.

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SUMMARY:  Interest in the study of the tongue has increased in recent years because of its association with oral halitosis and its role as a reservoir for periodontal pathogens. This paper covers the tongue structure, coating of the tongue, and therapeutical approaches to resolving bad breath.

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SUMMARY:  Bad breath typically originates in the mouth, often from the back of the tongue. Nasal problems also can cause bad breath. In most cases, good professional oral care combined with a daily regimen of oral hygiene including teeth cleaning, deep tongue cleaning, and optimal use of an effective mouthrinse will lead to improvement. This article discusses common causes of bad breath and methods to determine the extent of the problem.

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SUMMARY:  Bad breath is considered to originate primarily from bacteria on the tongue. This study of 29 individuals, 10 of which were free from bad breath, was conducted to find a connection between bad breath and tongue periodontal pathogens. The results of the study suggest that there are five periodontal pathogens on the surface of the tongue that contribute greatly to volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) production. Volatile sulfur compounds are known to cause bad breath.

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SUMMARY:  In this study, oral malodor, dental and periodontal conditions, dental plaque, and tongue coating were assessed in 2,672 individuals aged 18 to 64 years. Data on volatile sulfur compounds were analyzed by gender, age group, and time measurements. The results of the study indicated that there were no significant differences observed in VSC between males and females in any age group. It was observed however, that in each age group, the measurements of oral malodor were at their highest in the late morning. Results also indicated a significant correlation between the VSC values, periodontal conditions, and tongue coating status. This suggests that oral malodor is caused mainly by tongue coating in the younger generation, and by periodontal disease combined with tongue coating in the older generation of the general population.

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SUMMARY:  This article reviews the biological and psychological bases of patients' complaints of bad breath and describes a clinical protocol for evaluation and treatment of these complaints. Adherence to this protocol resulted in a 99% success rate in eliminating bad breath.

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SUMMARY:  The purpose of this study was to compare the bacteria on the tongue of patients that were healthy to those that had halitosis. Through the study, it was discovered that the bacteria on the surface of the tongue of healthy patients was different from the bacteria found on the tongue of patients with halitosis.

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SUMMARY:  Chlorine dioxide is a powerful molecule used in the treatment of halitosis and various periodontal diseases. Based on extensive research, Dr. Katz has introduced a new active ingredient in his TheraBreath mouthwash called Pharmagene. This powerful ingredient is a solution of sodium chloride. Since TheraBreath contains Pharmagene, there is no need to add any undesired chemicals such as acid or bleach, thus it's the perfect solution for instantaneously destroying the halitosis causing bacteria and compounds in the mouth. Additionally, it provides long residual effects in preventing the formation of halitosis.

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SUMMARY:  Studies have suggested that when chlorine dioxide is within a mouthrinse, it neutralizes malodorous volatile sulfur compounds in mouth air. This study was to further prove the efficacy of a mouthrinse that contains chlorine dioxide in reducing bad breath. At the conclusion of the study of 31 participants, it was demonstrated that a one-time use of a chlorine dioxide-containing mouthrinse significantly improves mouth odor pleasantness, reduces mouth odor intensity, and reduces volatile sulfur compounds concentrations in mouth air for at least 8 hours after use.

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SUMMARY:  This study of 40 subjects grouped and given different treatment regimens to follow. The groups that used a tongue cleaner showed a statistically significant reduction in Halimeter readings of bad breath as compared to the groups that did no use a tongue cleaner.

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SUMMARY:  The results of this study suggest that chlorine dioxide toothpaste and rinse combination has a greater efficacy than the phenol related rinse regimen (Listerine) in improving most periodontal parameters (including Halitosis) over a 60 day period.

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SUMMARY:  This paper provides a comprehensive review of the etiology (causes) of breath odor, its prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment strategies.

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SUMMARY:  This review of literature deals with the different forms of halitosis. Halitosis can be subdivided according to the location it originated from. Halitosis of an oral origin is well understood, however through this article, attention is paid to other originating locations such as from the upper respiratory tract including the nose, from the lower respiratory tract, and blood-borne halitosis. Blood-borne halitosis is caused by certain diseases, medications, and even certain foods.

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SUMMARY:  Halitosis is primarily caused by bacteria and volatile sulfur compounds. Ninety percent of patients that suffer from halitosis have oral causes such as poor oral hygiene, periodontal disease, a coating on the surface of the tongue, food impaction, unclean dentures, oral carcinomas, and throat infections. The remaining 10 percent of individuals that suffer from halitosis have systemic causes that include renal or hepatic failure, diabetes or trimethylaminuria. Management of halitosis involves maintaining proper oral hygiene and periodontal treatment including tongue brushing. This article covers all of these halitosis related concepts.

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SUMMARY:  In most cases, halitosis is caused by a condition in the mouth, however it may also be caused by other influences. This article examines the history, causes, examination, and treatment of halitosis. Armed with flossing material, a toothbrush that reaches the back of the tongue, and chlorine dioxide mouthwash for resistant cases, most halitosis conditions can be successfully treated.

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SUMMARY:  Zinc ions, chlorhexidine and cetylpyridinium chloride are all agents known to inhibit the production of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) which cause bad breath. The objective of this study was to examine the anti-VSC effects of each of the above agents. It was demonstrated through the study that all test agents had anti-VSC reactions at varying levels. Although, zinc had the best anti-VSC effect and chlorhexidine was the least effective.

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SUMMARY:  The purpose of this study was to determine whether a reduction of salivary flow, also known as dry mouth, would influence the production of bad breath causing volatile sulfur compounds. A total of 174 participants were evaluated. The results of the study indicated that those participants with extremely low resting salivary flow rates had significantly higher concentrations and a coating of the tongue than those participants with a higher resting salivary flow. Additionally those patients prone to a drier mouth had a thicker tongue coating and greater pocket depths within their gums.

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SUMMARY:  Halitosis is a common problem, estimated to affect up to 50% of the population in varying degrees of intensity. The principal causative agents of halitosis are volatile sulfur compounds. This article focuses on mouthwashes that affect halitosis due to causes within the mouth.

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SUMMARY:  Bad breath ranks just behind dental caries (cavities and tooth decay) and periodontal disease as the cause of patient's visits to the dentist. This is a comprehensive paper on bad breath from its causes, means of measuring bad breath, periodontal disease, the role of the tongue in bad breath, and therapeutical approaches to resolving bad breath.

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SUMMARY:  This article is about bad breath from its prevalence, to causes, to diagnosis, and finally to treatment.

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SUMMARY:  This article reviews the etiology (causes), diagnosis, and treatment of bad breath from a periodontal perspective. There is ample evidence that suggests that periodontal disease increases the severity of bad breath.

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SUMMARY:  The purpose of this study was to examine the bad breath preventing capabilities of oxidizing lozenges compared to breath mints and chewing gum. The results show that only the oxidizing lozenges significantly reduced tongue malodor, whereas the breath mints and chewing gum did not reduce bad breath.

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SUMMARY:  The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of chewing gum containing zinc as compared to a placebo in the reduction of bad breath in subjects with moderate to severe halitosis. The overall results concluded that subjects using two pieces of zinc chewing gum showed maximum reduction in all the parameters of halitosis.

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SUMMARY:  As a result of this study of 81 participants, it was determined that the volume of tongue coating, extent of periodontal disease, pocket depth levels in the gums, and a scraping score of the tongue were significantly associated with bad breath. Specifically, the amount of coating on the tongue and the percent of sites on the gums that bleed during probing were positively connected to bad breath.

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SUMMARY:  This article outlines the efficacy and mechanisms of different bad breath resolving approaches including those that are mechanical and chemical in nature. It was found through this study that the most successful treatment of bad breath involves mechanical debridement which includes toothbrushing, flossing, and tongue cleaning combined with the use of an antimicrobial mouthrinse.

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SUMMARY:  The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) and gingival health status, and to monitor the changes in VSC in early dental plaque-induced gingivitis.

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SUMMARY:  Chewing gum seems to be a suitable method for the use of zinc in order to reduce VSC levels in the mouth thus effecting bad breath. The effect of chewing gum without zinc was negligible.

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SUMMARY:  The thousands of individuals who experience bad breath from anaerobic bacteria on the surface of the tongue can be successfully treated by a regimen that includes tongue and tooth brushing. Additional benefits may be associated with the use of mouthrinses that contain chloreheidine, however there are some undesirable side effects from the use of chlorhexidine. Mouthrinses containing essential oils or zinc chloride have reduced bad breath odors to moderate levels even in the absence of tongue brushing, and they are free of the same side effects experienced with chlorhexidine. These other mouthrinses could be marketed as oral deodorants similar to the purpose of deodorant soaps for body odors.

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SUMMARY:  Oral rinses are increasingly becoming an important treatment option for halitosis. This article reviews potential causes and detection methods of halitosis along with bacterial, microbiological, and biochemical processes involved. In addition, available literature on clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of different types of oral rinses used in reducing plaque and gingivitis and treating halitosis is given. Such halitosis fighting ingredients as zinc, chlorhexidine, and chlorine dioxide are discussed.

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SUMMARY:  Volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) are a family of gases that are primarily responsible for halitosis. An increasing volume of evidence is demonstrating that VSC may play a role in creating inflammatory conditions such as periodontitis. This article reviews the data that emphasizes the importance of VSC in the transition of healthy tissues to gingivitis and then to periodontitis.

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SUMMARY:  The purpose of this study was to test 101 adult patients and evaluate the association between the presence of periodontal pathogenic bacteria in saliva and halitosis in mouth air. The study concludes that the presence of three different bacteria strains were found within the mouth air of patients influenced the production of bad breath causing volatile sulfur compounds. It was also found that in patients with periodontitis, there were intense levels of VSC.

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SUMMARY:  The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) and tongue coating to periodontal health. After testing forty subjects ranging in age from 14 to 64 years, it was demonstrated that a coating on the tongue is a primary halitosis-inducing factor. Periodontal health was also shown to contribute to VSC production.

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SUMMARY:  Over the last twenty-five years there has been extensive research on the subject of periodontal disease. The presence of gingival inflammation creates debris composed of polypeptide chains. These polypeptide chains are the major contributing factor in halitosis. Found in the breath of halitosis patients are compounds known as volatile sulfur compounds (VSC). The presence of VSC's have been found to breakdown and increase permeability of gingival tissue allowing bacterial toxins to enter the gums. As the severity of periodontal breakdown occurs, the presence of VSC's increases. If VSC's reach a great enough concentration, deepening pockets form in the gum tissue, and the downward spiral begins. Research has found that oxidizing the sulfur bonds with one of the safest yet most powerful oxidizers available, chlorine dioxide, stops the downward spiral effect. Chlorine dioxide has been used by industries for years as a disinfectant and deodorizer.

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SUMMARY:  This article gives an overview of halitosis, its source, tips for maintaining good breath, and approaches for reducing halitosis.

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SUMMARY:  This study examines zinc in different forms for its effectiveness in reducing volatile sulfur compounds, known to cause bad breath. It was found that zinc in either form is effective.

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SUMMARY:  Tongue brushing and mouth rinsing are basic treatment measures for halitosis. Tongue cleaning is more effective than mouth rinsing. However, when using a mouthrinse, the use of one that contains zinc has been recommended. The use of chewing up to reduce halitosis has been used, however the ingredients within chewing gum need to be considered. Sugarless chewing gum is known to increase a bad breath. Mint chewing gum has been found to have no effect on bad breath, it simply masks it for the short term.

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SUMMARY:  This paper reviews the role of the tongue as a habitat for oral microorganisms and the potential need for tongue cleaning as part of a daily oral hygiene regimen. Bacteria colonizing the tongue and pockets within the gums are associated with volatile sulfur compounds in periodontal health and disease. Volatile sulfur compounds are the cause of bad breath. The amount of coating on the surface of the tongue by patients that complained of bad breath was significantly higher than those without bad breath. The regular brushing or scraping of the tongue aimed at removing the coating on the tongue's surface, has been found to be successful in reducing bad breath.

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SUMMARY:  For this study the effects of three oral hygiene techniques on salivary bacteria were evaluated to see which method was most efficient in reducing salivary bacteria levels. Sixty patients were divided into three groups. Group 1 was asked to use a tongue scraper to brush their tongue once daily in the morning following regular teeth brushing, Group 2 was asked to place a Listerine Oral Care StripTM on their tongue once daily in the morning after normal teeth brushing, and Group 3 was asked to rinse every morning for thirty-seconds with a saline solution after regular teeth brushing. At the conclusion of the study, it was found that the most effective treatment in reducing bacteria counts within the mouth was Group 1 who used a tongue scraper. The group that was found to be the least effective was Group 2 which used the "Listerine Strip".

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SUMMARY:  It is estimated that approximately 85% of all halitosis cases have their origin within the mouth; of these 50% are caused by tongue residues. Tongue cleaning has gained importance as a a means of halitosis management. This investigation compared the efficacy of two methods for tongue cleaning: using a tongue scraper or using a soft-bristle toothbrush.The tongue coating was removed by both methods, however the tongue scraper performed better by removing 75% of the oral malodor causing volatile sulfur compounds, while the toothbrush only showed a 45% reduction of the same compounds.

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SUMMARY:  Twenty-five subjects suffering with bad breath were treated with TheraBreath brand stabilized chlorine dioxide mouthwash, toothgel, and spray. Their progress was monitored and the results showed that following the use of the products: (1) the level of volatile sulphur compounds significantly decreased, (2) there was a statistical decrease in halimeter readings showing the oxygenating effects which reduced the VSC's, and (3) patient saliva readings showed beneficial effects.

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SUMMARY:  Patients with periodontal disease frequently suffer from bad breath, which is caused by volatile sulfur compounds (VSC's). The highest concentration of bad breath causing bacteria occurred in the deepest pockets of the gums. This study also found that in addition to pockets inside the gums, a coating on the tongue has an important role in bad breath production. Patients with periodontal disease had a higher amount of tongue coating as well.

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SUMMARY:  This is a review of what is bad breath (halitosis), the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment.

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SUMMARY:  For the majority of people, the single most frequent cause of their bad breath odor problem is related to conditions within their mouth. This discussion presents information about the causes of bad breath from bacteria, certain foods, the tongue, and the gums.

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SUMMARY:  This discussion outlines concepts related to bad breath from simple tests you can do yourself to determine if you have bad breath, how and why bacteria causes bad breath, explanations using tongue scrapers, mouthwashes and specialty products for bad breath.

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SUMMARY:  Oral malodor in the last five to six years has increasingly come to the forefront of public and dental professional awareness. To date, there have been four international conferences where experts in the field have gathered and published their observations and research findings. This article covers causes of oral malodor, measuring malodor, and treatments.

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SUMMARY:  This article reviews the terminology related to various types of oral malodors and associated conditions and attempts to clarify these significant terms, this article also discusses aspects of osmology which is the study of odors, their production, and their effects.

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SUMMARY:  In this article, Dr. Schneider covers the bases on halitosis and concludes with a case study.



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